Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center
Carlos G. Vélez Ibáñez, Director

UCCLR Annual Report and 2003-04 Program Plan
The Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center (EGARC) funded the research and creative projects of faculty and graduate and undergraduate students, supported Center research in New Mexico, sponsored academic speakers and presenters, and supported a conference during reporting period July 1, 2002 through June 30, 2003.

EGARC's applied research focal points focused on state and national issues pertinent to the Mexican/Latino populations of the state, nation, and transnational settings. In addition to the $45,000 permanent funding allocated by the UC Committee on Latino Research, EGARC earned over $76,000 in research and development funds from various campus and extra mural sources (California Health Worker Foundation $50,000 for current year plus carryover of 15,000 from previous year). UCR also provided matching funds of $76,761, which covered staff salaries and supplies and other administration related expenses. The Center continues to implement a comprehensive resource development plan to ensure its sustainability and in June of 2003 received an award of $190,000 from the California Wellness Foundation, and in July of 2003 was awarded $400,000 by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, one of only 10 projects funded in the United States in this competition.

EGARC's proposal for campus Center status, based on a clear multidisciplinary applied mission and goals, is still under review by Academic Senate. During this past academic year EGARC continued developing and training graduate students, providing opportunities for intensive technical and developmental programs in relation to research findings, and enhancing the University of California, Riverside's research, development, and instructional reputation regionally, nationally, and internationally. We have undergone an audit review, which provided us with valuable suggestions concerning budgetary procedures as well as endorsed our management of research and project resources and operations. For the fiscal year 2003-2004, we will have a slight budgetary overage from the previous year that we will pay off during fiscal 2004-2005. We continue to face the serious task of conducting our activities under a singularly unsupportive and oppositional college administration and we have therefore requested administrative transfer to the Office of the Vice President of Research.

2002-2003 Faculty Research Incentive Grants
(continuation of previous year)

Frank Bonilla--Communities for Virtual Research
"New Latino Digital Website (NLDW):" Hosted and assembled selected research and information relevant to globalization, neoliberalism, capitalism and their impacts on especially Latina/os the world around, as well as other communities suffering inequality, poverty, and discrimination. The website, which will highlight the works of scholars, research centers, and community organizations conducting programs in these key areas, has yet to be completed; however, EGARC plans to complete it during the upcoming year. The site will be easily accessible to educational institutions as well as the global community at large.

Adalberto Aguirre Jr.--Sociology
"Catalytic Subgroups in the Electoral Process: An Examination of Propositions 187 and 227:" Examined the latter observation by asking the question: What were the issues surrounding Propositions 187 and 227 that served as a catalyst for the Anglo population's use of the electoral process to express its will over the Mexican-origin population in California society?

David Farris--Economics
"Foreign Direct Investment and Mexican Economic Development: A Study of the Electronics Industry in Guadalajara:" Discerned the extent of job training in this sector in relation to other sectors of the Mexican economy, which have also witnessed significant foreign direct investment. Two data sets available for purchase from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of México would allow for precisely this kind of comparison. Because both data sets allow for identification of the detailed industry of respondents, they would allow for calculating the extent of job training across a variety of industrial sectors in Mexico, for purposes of confirming and comparing the case-study information gathered this summer.

Paul Gelles--Anthropology
"Transnationalism and Cultural Transformation:" Researched the transnational migration and the great changes sweeping the Andean highlands and brought that cycle of research to a close. After ten years of research, the investigator returned to Cabanaconde to witness the major fiesta event (the celebration of the Virgen of Carmen), and studied the ways in which this fiesta and its transnational sponsorship have changed the community over the last decade. The study is a significant contribution to migration studies, Andean Studies, Latin American Studies, and Anthropology.

Paul Green & Thomas Destino--Graduate School of Ed
"Language Planning, Politics, & Hegemony in American Institutions of Schooling:"
Studied how power through verbal channels is exerted and how language in essence is the vehicle for identifying, manipulating and changing power relations between people.

Paul Green--Graduate School of Education
"The Undocumented: Educating the Children of Migrant Workers in America:" Studied the education of undocumented or migrant students of color, which pose unique social and institutional problems. This research served as the focus for a book examining the social, political, economic, legal, cultural, psychological and educational problems facing undocumented children of migrant workers in the United States.

Michael Kearney--Anthropology
"Transnational Community Governance: A Pilot Study:" Explored the possibilities of developing a parallel program in which the high, and often ruinous costs incurred by citizens who must return from the North of Mexico to perform municipal service is in part defrayed by government grants. The research proposed concerns as a related concept devised by the P.I., tentatively referred to as Pesos por Servicio.

Armando Navarro--Ethnic Studies
"The Chicano Political Experience: Struggles for Social Change and Empowerment:" Examined the Chicano's historical/political events, politics, personalities, issues, demographics and organizations that affected the Mexicano Political Experience from 1848 to 2002.

Ellen Reese--Sociology
"Restoring Immigrants' Rights to Welfare in the U.S.: Comparative Case Studies:" Will complete a case study of the campaign to restore legal immigrants' rights to welfare in California by this August and present our findings at the 2001 annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. In addition, she will also use these findings for a book comparing various political struggles over welfare reform across U.S. cities and states.

Barbara Tinsley--Psychology
"Family and Cultural Influences on Mexican Americans Girls' Health:" Will extend a longitudinal study heretofore funded by NICHD/NIH, the Healthy Families Project at UCR (Department of Psychology), based in the laboratory of Barbara Tinsley. The data will be a first step in establishing norms for the timing of pubertal development and its consequences among Mexican American girls.

Maria L. Cruz-Torres--Anthropology
"Health Assessment in Mexican Rural Communities:" Determined the relationship between environmental degradation and health decline in two rural communities in southern Sinaloa partially due to the decline of fishing resources. The information was collected through interviews with health advocates in the two communities, personnel at nearby clinics, staff at the DIF (Sistema para el Desarollo Integral de la Familia), and healers or "curanderos."

Carlos Vélez-Ibáñez--Anthropology
"Comparative Analysis of the Transnational Political Economy of two regions of refuge: the Hatch Valley of New Mexico and the Coachella Valley of California." This is a continuing long term project to develop an understanding of the political ecology and economy of changes in household and community structure in two regions of refuge as these are reproduced and influenced over the last 100 years by changes in methods of production and reproduction within their respective transnational economies and ecologies.

Graduate Student Research Grants

Paul Almeida--Sociology
"Waves of Protest in El Salvador:" Explained two waves of popular movement activity in El Salvador between 1962 and 1981. He submitted his dissertation on Salvadoran popular movements for book publication as well as wrote several journal articles. A panel on Political Repression and Protest at the 2001 American Sociological Association Conference accepted his dissertation.

Manuel Barajas--Sociology
"The Impacts of Transnationalism on a Mexican Community:" Examined a Mexican "transnational" community focusing on several topics: labor migration, community, and family. This particular project focused on the notion of transnationalism and the consequences of this social phenomenon. This knowledge shed light on the impacts of migration on labor migrants, migrant and non-migrant communities, families and gender relations within a global context

Travis Du Bry--Anthropology
"Socioeconomic Change in a Desert Farm Laborer Community:" Documented the socioeconomic changes experienced by immigrant Mexican farm laborers working in rural California. The research documented contemporary Mexican farm laborer communities. This expanded the current understanding of farm laborers, and by extension their socioeconomic position in industrial agriculture, which up to now was based on an outdated traditional agrarian class model, one in which farm laborers and farmers are separated by an un-crossable socioeconomic divide and farm laborers are doomed to migratory harvest labor jobs.

Joel Carbonell--Political Science
"Mexican Foreign Economic Policy: A Cultural Approach:" Provided an alternative approach in understanding shifts in a state's foreign economic policy. In particular, this study presented a cultural approach to offer insights into Mexican foreign economics policies. The project acknowledged the utility of the realist theories, but asserted that a cultural approach may provide some insights into the changes in foreign economic policy in general and Mexican foreign economic policy in particular. This study asserts that dynamic cultural changes in Mexico impacted policy change. In particular, during the 1980s-1990s, political elites were reshaping Mexico's national identity via symbols and history in order to mobilize support for the "new" economic policies.

Marta Gil Lacruz--Psychology
"The Health Care System, Community Approach:" Studied how wellbeing, participation and prevention acquire their meanings when contextualized in a reference community. The interdisciplinary team elaborated the Casablanca Health Enquire,(Zaragoza, Spain)with the goal to deepen the influence of psychosocial variables in the explanation of the relation between neighborhood's health and their health care system.

Thomas Long--History
"The Other Side of 3rd Street: The Many Generations and Successes of Fultan, CA:" Studied the racist perceptions of the greater Sonoma County population, and examined in depth the reasons behind the tremendous success of the Fulton Township community - and its rebuke of and by the rest of Sonoma. The finalized manuscript was submitted for publication to the following scholarly journals: California History, Pacific Historical Review, and American Indian Quarterly.

Konane Martinez--Anthropology
"Health Across Borders: Mixtec Utilization of Clinical Health Care:" Investigated the utilization of clinical health care services by Mixtec transnational migrants using ethnographic methodologies. The investigation documented barriers to clinical access, expectations for clinical care, and patterns of clinic use in Oaxaca and California.

Carolina Bank Muñoz--Sociology
"Organizing Latinos/as in Manufacturing:" Examined the global restructuring that has seriously affected workers in both developing and industrialized countries. The exploitation of women in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the exploitation of immigrant women in the U.S. has initiated a great deal of research on women and development. Research determined to what extent, manufacturing industries are unionizing in Los Angeles and Tijuana. The hypothesis being that while heavy industries, largely white and male (i.e. aerospace) are unionized, light industries (garment, electronics, toys), largely immigrant Latino/a are not being unionized, especially along the U.S./Mexico border.

Gina Nuñez-Anthropology (Ms. Nuñez was the recipient of $16,666 UCLCR Graduate Student Research Grant) and Edgar Najera, Education.
"Colonias in Southern New Mexico: A Transnational Study of the Political Economy and Ecology of U.S.-Mexico Border Human Settlements:" Examined human adaptability of migrant communities along the U.S.-Mexico Border by analyzing the roles of human agents, non-governmental organizations, and governmental agencies in the development of "colonias." Research helped better understand how immigrant populations define their place and space by way of colonias located within 150 miles of the U.S.-Mexico border. Nunez has carried out intensive field research utilizing EGARC questionnaires and research questions that will form one aspect of her expected dissertation.

Elvia Ramirez--Sociology
"Latinas and Education:" Studied Latina college students in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of the structural (e.g. racial/gender discrimination) and cultural (e.g. gender role socialization) forces that impact their educational experiences and aspirations; in particular, the multifaceted role that traditional Latino culture has in the educational aspirations of Latina college students. The research helped answer the questions, Do Latino cultural norms and values inhibit Latinas from pursuing higher education, particularly professional/doctorate degrees? Or, does Latino culture also provide resources that facilitate Latinas' educational aspirations and success? In addition, research analyzed structural barriers that hinder Latinas' educational attainment.

Summer Internship Program
Successful Transition of Latino Students From Junior College to
Four Year Institutions 2002-2003
(Due to limited resources we did not conduct the Internship Program this year; however, plan to resume summer of 2003-2004)

Extramural Funded Research
"Community Health Worker Program for Improving the Quality of Health Care in California"
Funded by: California Healthcare Foundation: 2001-2004, $300,000.

The Community Health Worker Program for the Improving the Quality of Health Care in California is designed to inform, educate and stimulate interest in consumer driven healthcare for Latinos in urban and rural, immigrant and native born, of all ages throughout California.

The chw/promotora model is a nationally recognized model of community response, intervention and action. The original model was based on the research of Mexican familial networks and the analysis of cultural practices among Mexicans pioneered by Velez-Ibanez and others. During its second year of implementation the Program continued to identify quality care issues, determine policy implications, provide community input and disseminate information. The Program supported the capacity building of chw/promotora programs towards viable entities with organizational, social and community infrastructure to join the quality care debate. During the reporting period numerous regional as well as statewide meetings were conducted. In January a statewide conference was held where more than 350 promotoras attended a series of panel discussions and workshops and initiatived the development of a sustainable statewide structure that will continue to focus on healthcare provisions for Latinos in the United States. All the activities carried out were for the principal goal of helping the chw/promotoras reach the highest levels of program understanding and the implications of quality health care to their community constituents. Moreover, the Program focused on the development and implementation of a dissemination and education plan for community members, providers and policy makers. The members of the advisory committee and the regional meetings actively worked towards this end.

Proposals Funded and Submitted in 2003

Funded: California Wellness Foundation: "Ecological Health for the Future" ($190,000).

The Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center will train a cadre of environmental home health researchers made up of 35 upper elementary and middle school students, parents, and teachers who order carry out basic research and develop learning materials from a constructed data base. They will be trained to carry out environmental health research among the colonias of Mecca, Thermal, Oasis, and the Torres Martinez Indian Reservation; develop multiple media materials, curriculum learning modules, and public presentation models in order to enhance colonia environmental home health education; and will communicate their work to local, county, state, and national policy makers in order to stimulate public discussion and eventual positive interventions. The three-year, $190,000 project will be carried by the Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center (EGARC) in conjunction with local school authorities, action agencies and groups, and colonia residents. EGARC has carried out highly successful digitally-based applied research programs in Riverside, conducted colonias research in New Mexico and California, and developed community-based Promotora Health Programs in California. The project's three objectives are to: (1) Construct a knowledge base developed by 35 colonia residents and teachers of the most salient environmental home health issues, practices, and behaviors among a sample of colonia residences; (2) Familiarize cadre with available environmental home health literature through the Internet and in tandem will become familiar with basic digital program use and development in order to construct and integrate developed materials and images from their research; and (3) Communicate developed multiple media resources to local, county, state, and national authorities and policy makers

Funded: HUD 2003-2006/Community Outreach Partnership Centers "Capacity Building for the Future" ($400,000 with $500,000 in kind contributions from regional and local community partners excluding the university match of $46,000).

The Capacity Building for the Future Project (CBF), will serve the colonias of Mecca, Thermal, and Oasis, and two Colonias on Native American reservations in the Southeastern desert of California. This program initiated by the Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center of the University of Califonia, Riverside (UCR) is to enhance employment opportunities of community members by providing job training in digital technology, develop and deploy an interactive web based database developed by community members themselves; second, to develop a community development project through a "Funds of Knowledge" assets mapping of the Desert Colonias conducted by trained community members; and third to partner with the California Wellness Foundation to create and implement a community based home environmental health program in which local youth, parents, and teachers design, develop educational materials for integration in local schools, region, and nation. Each of these activities is designed to build capacity for community autonomy, enhance job capacity of community members, and last, to increase the quality of living in these colonias. The projects activities will include: first, the development of two Community Technology Centers focused on employment preparation and job enhancement programs especially developed to teach and train persons in digital technology. Second, the UCR, CBF Initiative, in partnership with community action organizations, faith-based organizations, and tribal authorities, will assist in developing an extensive human assets community resource database and, from this, designing and implementing a viable community development project. Building on the work of Dr. Carlos Velez-Ibanez in "Funds of Knowledge" and Randall Pinkett, Capacity Building for Future of the Desert Colonias will train local residents to use Pinkett's Community Connections System to leverage and enhance the economic, human, and social capital in this desert community. This will serve as the platform database for planning and developing community projects. Third, The UCR CBF Environmental Home Health activity will develop an environmental home health program in the Coachella Valley of Southeastern California. HUD funding supports the Colonias' capacity to develop their own environmental home health projects and integrate the social and material needs of colonias within the policy horizons of agency, county, state, and national authorities and within the educational institutions of California. Funded by the California Wellness Foundation, an earlier part of the program will train a research cadre of school students, their teachers and parents from the agricultural Colonias and two other colonias that are part of adjoining Indian reservation.

Invited Speakers
2002-2003 Distinguished Speaker Series
Dra. Mariángela Rodríguez, a senior researcher with the Center for Research and Higher Education in Social Anthropology at UNAM, spoke Monday May 6-- "Myth, Identity and Ritual: Mexicans and Chicanos in California."

Dr. Timothy Finan, director of Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology at the University of Arizona, spoke Wednesday May 9--"Institutionalizing Applied Anthropology in a University: The Case for BARA (Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology)."


May 14, 2003-Educating the Bilingual Student: Accountability and Effective Practices (328 participants)
January 2003, Promotora Statewide Conferences (350 participants).

Extramural Development

Title: California Health Worker/Promotora Project
Agency: The California Wellness Foundation
Amount: $100,000 (July 2002-June2003) (Pending notification)

Title: Community Digital Initiative: Administrative Support
Agency: The California Wellness Foundation
Amount: $50,000 (July 2001-June2002)

EGARC Graduate Student Researchers
Guillermina Nuñez, Graduate Student-Anthropolog and Edgar Najera, Education Graduate Student.

Under the direction of Dr. Carlos Velez-Ibáñez, Nunez examined human adaptability of migrant communities along the U.S.-Mexico Border by analyzing the roles of human agents, non-governmental organizations, and governmental agencies in the development of "colonias." Research helped better understand how immigrant populations define their place and space by way of colonias located within 150 miles of the U.S.-Mexico border. Nunez has carried out intensive field research utilizing EGARC questionnaires and research questions that will form one aspect of her expected dissertation. Najera is responsible for inputting the data from 120 randomally collected households using 10 questionnaires each in five colonias.

EGARC Undergraduate Researchers
Aide Acosta, Senior, History and Anthropology
Angel Lopez, Senior, Ethnic Studies and History
Alfonso Taboada, Junior, Chicano Studies and Anthropology
Hue Tang, Junior, Computer Science

2003-2004 Faculty Research Grants

Edna Bonacich, Christ Chase-Dunn, Thomas Reifer--Sociology
Labor and Logistics in the Pacific Rim: Changing Structures of Production and Immigration in the Mexico-Southern California-China Triangle Research will analyze the changing structure of production (including in agriculture), distribution (logistics), financial investment flows and networks of immigration in the Mexico-China-Southern California triangle from 1970 to the present, in the context of global trends as a whole. Furthermore, it will analyze opportunities for transborder organizing and international cooperation among workers that are most likely to improve wages and working conditions.

Maria L. Cruz-Torres--Anthropology
Lives of Dust and Water: An Anthropology of Change and Resistance in Northwestern Mexico
Research will trace the emergence of rural communities in coastal northwestern Mexico and particularly in the southern region of the Mexican State of Sinaloa. It focuses on the manner in which households survive in the midst of global processes, environmental degradation and economic impoverishment and while such circumstances are destructive of the human spirit; nevertheless, household and community members invent and utilize their own social capital and genius to survive as whole persons.

Anthony Macias--Ethnic Studies
Pachucos, Tarzanes, and the Mambo: A Tale of Two Cultural Capitals
Research will document the culture, consciousness, pride and prejudice of a distinctly Mexican American generation that, because of both its achievements and failures, gave rise to the militant Chicano generation of the 1960s. Mexican American expressive culture is also a multi-ethnic urban history of Los Angeles that shows how successive integrated dance scenes surrounding big band swing, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, and Latin music defied the social containment of a segregated city.

Armando Navarro--Ethnic Studies
The Mexicano Political Experience in Occupied Aztlan: Struggles of Resistance and Change Research will provide an overview of the internal/external colonial and political cultural theoretical framework that guide its political historical analysis. A succinct overview of each will be provided with the intent of providing the reader with a general or basic intellectual understanding of each.

Robert Perez--Ethnic Studies
Migration Patterns and Oral Histories of Sonoran Indian Tribes
Research will document the migration patterns of the Tohono O'odham, Yaqui, Mayo, Tarahumara, and Seri nations from the 19th century until the modern period, and how it is that these migrations have affected the formation of contemporary Indian settlements. Furthermore, to research how these migration patterns have been heavily influenced by aboriginal patterns of development in the pre-Spanish period as well as by Spanish colonization and phenomenon as diverse as the Mexican Revolution, the Bracero program, the activities of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, and continuing Mexican cultural and territorial encroachment on Native lands in Sonora.

Dylan Rodriguez--Ethnic Studies
Thirty Years in Isolation: Conversations with Hugo 'Yogi' Pinell
Researcher, based on an interview granted by Pinell during his time in Pelican Bay, will develop an ethnographic work that will have lasting significance to public policy makers, historians, anthropologists, and other researchers of the burgeoning California prison industrial complex. Pinell offers a sociological and historical account that extends beyond his personal biography and encompasses a stunningly comprehensive history of whit might be called the "California prison movement" during the 1960's and 1970's.

2003-2004 Graduate Student Research Grants

Jesse Diaz--Sociology
Psychosociology Conditions of Day Laborers Research will be conducted at the Pomona Economic Opportunity Center (PEOC) in Pomona, California. The PEOC is a day labor center, which provides diurnal employment for employees who are predominately Latino, specifically Mexican and Central American immigrants. The PEOC has been in operation for over five years, mostly because of the efforts of the community, Pitzer college students and Pitzer College professor, Jose Calderon.

Gary Goodman--Political Science
Transnational Consequences of Subnational Institutions: A Study of Migrant Mixtec in Southern and Central California.
Research intends to sharpen the understanding of how local political institutions that explicitly recognize and incorporate indigenous customs into the formal political process can foster substantive political participation among indigenous groups. Specifically, it will examine the impact of indigenous-based local political institutions on the political behavior of the Mixtecs of Southern Mexico and Southern California. The research will challenge the proposition that such behavior is likely more a result of longstanding local political and economic institutions that discourage indigenous peoples' entrance into the formal political and economic system.

Edgar I. Najera--Graduate School of Education
On Self, Ethnicity and Education: Educational Paths of Mexican-American Students
T he study will look at the intersection between students' ethnicity and both home and educational experiences. The general purpose is to understand the development of self and ethnic identity of Mexican-American students and its relationship with experiences at schools. On idea is to build upon previous research that document on the minority experience in schooling to identify particularities of the Mexican-American population.

Guillermina Gina Nunez--Anthropology
The Political Ecology of Households and Communities on the U.S.-Mexico Border: A Case Study of Colonias in Southern New Mexico
The study will provide an analysis of community formation processes to examine how colonia residents define their place and space through civic participation. A representative sample of a cluster of four colonia communities in Southern New Mexico will 1) document settlement processes of a Mexican labor force in agricultural, dairy, and service industries along the U.S.-Mexico border; 2) and identify the growing population's need for housing and social services, while 3) creating primary data that will be useful in applied policy applications that will better serve the people living in these colonia communities.

Elvia Ramirez--Sociology
Chicanas/Latinas in Higher Education
The study will explore how the graduate schooling process is enmeshed in race, class, and gender hierarchies and inequalities, and how this impacts the educational conditions and experiences of Chicana/Latina graduate (PhD) students. In other words, it will examine Chicanas/Latinas' experiences with racism, classism, and sexism while pursuing their graduate degrees and how these major (and intersecting) mechanisms of subordination function as a barriers to their graduate degree completion and success. Specifically, this study will examine the race, class, and gender dyanamics of various aspects of the graduate schooling experience, including the graduate school curriculum, classroom dyanamics, social interactions with peers, faculty expectations, mentorship, financial support, and research opportunities and experiences.

Conclusion and Program Planning Horizons:
In December 2003, HUD funding was granted for the "Ecological Health for the Future" project.. During the upcoming academic year, EGARC will continue to carryout the project: "Community Health Worker/Promotora Program for Improving Quality of Health Care for Latinos/as".

Despite reduced funding, EGARC will continue to allocate funds for faculty and graduate/undergraduate student awards and conferences, colloquia, and speakers that focus on the Center's mission and goals and enhance its opportunities for extra-mural research. As well, we will initiate a publication series of short essays devoted to the Center's topical foci. All graduate students working in EGARC will continue to be subject to an intense methodological training program that will emphasize a diverse but integrated curriculum of methods, techniques, and skills necessary to carry out Center research. We will also endeavor to move EGARC from the College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences to the Office of the Vice President of Research in the near future.